Espresso Machine

What is an Espresso Machine?

An Espresso machine is a specialised coffee brewing device designed to create the concentrated coffee we all know and love, Espresso. It operates by pressurising hot water and forcing it through finely ground coffee beans at high pressure, resulting in a strong and richly flavoured coffee shot. Espresso machines come in various types, including manual, semi-automatic, and automatic, each offering different levels of control and convenience in brewing. 

Typically, Espresso machines feature components like a water reservoir, a pump or lever system, a portafilter to hold the coffee grounds, and a steam wand for frothing milk. Espresso machines are the foundation for crafting various espresso-based drinks, such as Cappuccinos and Lattes. They are a staple in coffee shops and home kitchens of coffee enthusiasts seeking a high-quality coffee experience.

What are the Different Types of Espresso Machines?

There are a whole load of different types of Espresso machines that serve various purposes. From the commercial varieties you'll see in a cafe to the automatic ones you might see in a showroom to the smaller home-user machines. They also come in countless shapes, sizes, colours and styles. But no matter if they are commercial or home use, they'll fall into one of four of the following categories:


These are the machines you'd most likey come across in a cafe. A semi-automatic Espresso machine allows the barista to control most of the Espresso-making process while automating some key functions. These machines typically feature an internal pump to generate the necessary pressure for brewing Espresso, a boiler or heating element to heat the water, and a portafilter to hold and dispense the coffee grounds.

Automatic (Bean to Cup)

Automatic Espresso machines, often called "bean to cup" machines, take care of the entire brewing process. From grinding the beans to extracting the Espresso. Automatic machines also have an external steam wand for frothing milk. These can be manual or automatic, depending on the owner's preference. Bean-to-cup machines are designed for convenience and ease of use, making them ideal for businesses with high-volume demands or less-experienced baristas. They are most likely found in businesses where coffee isn't their primary offering.

Super Automatic

Super-automatic machines handle nearly every aspect of Espresso-making, including grinding the beans, tamping, brewing, and even milk frothing. They often have programmable settings for various coffee drinks, making them highly convenient and making the need for a barista redundant. You'll find these machines in petrol stations, cafeterias and hotel lobbies. 

Manual (lever-operated)

As the name suggests, these machines are fully manual, meaning the barista controls every aspect of the brewing process. These machines require the barista to pull a lever to manually control the pressure and water flow needed for Espresso extraction. This allows for a highly customisable Espresso but requires skill and practice to perfect. All original Espresso machines were manual, and many still exist today. 

The choice of Espresso machine depends on your needs, preferences, and skill level. Whether you're a barista looking for complete control or a coffee enthusiast seeking convenience, there is likely an Espresso machine type that suits your requirements.

What are the Key Components of Espresso Machines?

As you can imagine, Espresso machines have many vital components that work together to brew your coffee. But here's a brief description of some of the more obvious ones:

Portafilter and Group Head

  • Portafilter: This detachable, handle-like device holds the coffee grounds. Inside the portafilter is a metal basket with a fine mesh bottom that allows the liquid coffee to flow through while keeping the coffee grinds out of your Espresso.
  • Group Head: The group head is the part of the machine the portafilter is locked into. Inside the group head is a shower screen where the hot water will flow from saturating the coffee bed. Around the shower screen is a rubber ring which helps hold the portafilter in place. 

Boiler and Pump Systems

  • Boiler: The boiler heats and stores the water for brewing Espresso and steaming milk. Espresso machines can have single or dual boilers, with dual boilers allowing for simultaneous brewing and steaming.
  • Pump: The pump creates the necessary pressure to force hot water through the coffee grounds. This usually is around 9 bars of pressure. 

Steam Wand

  • Steam Wand: This is the metal tube protruding from an Espresso machine used to steam and froth milk for Espresso-based drinks like Lattes and Cappuccinos. It releases high-pressure steam into the milk, essentially blowing bubbles into it. By adjusting the position of the jug, baristas can reduce these bubbles until they are nearly invisible, turning the milk into the glossy, textured milk used to create Latte art. 

Control Panel

  • Most commercial Espresso machines will have a digital control panel for adjusting various settings, including water temperature, pressure, and shot duration. 

How Do You Maintain and Clean an Espresso Machine?

Coffee is naturally oily and acidic, and its residue will build up over time if neglected. These oils can become rancid if not removed, impacting the quality of the Espresso produced. Even the freshest, most delicious beans in a dirty machine will only make dirty-tasting coffee. As well as this, coffee residue can cause blockages that may damage the machine. Even a new Espresso machine can quickly require expensive repairs without regular cleaning. Here's a rundown of the steps to cleaning an Espresso machine:

  • Insert a blank filter into the portafilter. This solid basket fits into the portafilter and will backflush the water into the machine.
  • Lock your portafilter into the grouphead and press the go button. Allow this to run for five seconds, then stop. Repeat this step three times.
  • Remove the portafilter and scrub inside the grouphead using a cleaning brush.
  • Dose one small scoop of machine-cleaning powder into the blank basket using the scoop on the end of your cleaning brush. This powder (which sometimes comes in tablet form) is specially designed to descale and remove the oily, acidic residue of coffee in the machine.
  • Lock your portafilter back in place and repeat step 2 at least five times or until the water is clean.

If you're cleaning a commercial machine, after these steps, you should soak the metal parts of the portafilter in a tub with cleaning powder for at least ten minutes. A commercial Espresso machine should be cleaned daily at the close of business. Before starting the next shift, run at least one shot of coffee through the machine for 30 seconds to flush out any remaining cleaning powder.

If you have a machine at home, follow the manufacturer's advice on how regularly it should be cleaned.

Espresso Machine